Stéphane Balayssac,a Véronique Gilard,a Marc-André Delsucb and Myriam Malet-Martinoa
aUniversité de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire de Synthèse et Physico-Chimie de Molécules d’Intérêt Biologique (SPCMIB), Groupe de RMN Biomédicale, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9, France
bInstitut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), 1 rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch, France
The capability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to provide valuable information regarding mixture analysis has created broad applicability in chemistry, biochemistry, biology and medicine. As drugs can be considered to be complex mixtures (composed of many different substances and/or including simultaneously high and very low quantities of compounds), NMR is a good tool for studying such formulations.
Iain A. Larmour, Jennifer P.E.D. Gray and Steven E.J. Bell
Innovative Molecular Materials Group, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, BT9 5AG, UK
Interest in Raman spectroscopy as an analytical technique that can be applied in a wide variety of fields continues to increase. The main reason for this interest is that no special sample preparation is required. However, the Raman signal is typically very weak, with only one in every 106–108 photons being scattered. This has driven the development of several enhancement techniques, e.g. Resonance Raman (RR), Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) and Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (SERRS), which can be used for dilute samples.
Michael J. Watts,a* Mark Buttona,b and Gawen R.T. Jenkinb
bDepartment of Geology, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
The health implications of chronic exposure to arsenic are well known, with populations exposed on a worldwide scale, the majority of which are in locations such as Bangladesh, South-East Asia and South America. Serious health problems have been associated with drinking water high in arsenic, including various cancers, vascular disease and skin keratoses.
bDepartment of Solid State Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, PO Box 2, Hungary
The decrease of dimensions and increasing complexity of thin-film and multilayer structures require the application of methods that provide information down to the nanometre scale. The quantification of nanostructures and surface layers with high sensitivity is often of crucial importance in monitoring product quality. Sensitive elemental analysis, together with a quantitative chemical analysis, is a prerequisite for the preparation of thin-layer structures of good quality.
Martina Marchetti-Deschmann and Günter Allmaier
Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164-IAC, A-1060 Vienna, Austria
Natural latex was used by Aztec Indians to prepare shoes, bottles, balls and other products during the pre-Columbian civilisation. Latex is produced in laticifers, specialised cells located directly under the bark of the rubber tree, and is harvested as latex milk by periodic incision of the bark (tapping). Latex milk is a colloidal dispersion consisting of 30–38% rubber polymer particles, 60–70% water, 1–2% proteins, 2% resins, 1% lipids, 5–8% oligosaccharides and 0.5% inorganic salts. To prevent coagulation of freshly tapped milk, 0.7% (high ammoniated latex) or 0.2% (low ammoniated latex) ammonia is added, then the milk is centrifuged to a rubber content of >60%. Auxiliaries to inhibit fungal or bacterial infestation are admixed, and the prepared milk is shipped to different parts of the world.
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